Post-Treatment Cancer Patient Care

For any cancer sufferer the road from diagnosis to treatment is a long and hard. It's also an emotional trip that leaves the body and mind tired and weakened. What's more, even when cancer treatments are finished there is still a long journey ahead, for the road to recovery doesn't end with a dose of radiation or a course of medication.

Many people fail to realize how much hard work still remains following the successful completion of all necessary cancer treatments. This can lead to problems when it comes to post-treatment care, particularly in terms of attempting to return to a state of what is considered normal. From here on we shall look at some of the important factors to keep in mind when it comes to post-treatment cancer care.

Physical Care

The entire process of combatting cancer is a tiring one. From cancer symptoms and diagnosis to primary and additional treatments, a cancer sufferer will become tired. They may lose weight as well as experience deterioration in general aspects of health (for example, respiration).

As such, post-treatment care requires a focus on physical care. This starts with rest and relaxation but extends first to light exercise (in the early stages of recovery) and then to more strenuous exertion (as the body becomes stronger). A key factor to remember here is that the body will only be able to take a small percentage of what it used to, so the risk of overdoing it is potentially high here.

Of course, this focus on physical care also needs to take into account the medical wellbeing of a person. This means regular checks need to be made to ensure that firstly the body is recovering as it should and secondly any potential relapse is picked up quickly.

The latter is a serious concern for any cancer sufferer. Even if a tumor is completely removed, there is still a risk that the cancer may return, or a new cancer will emerge in its place. Regular medical checks with a doctor or other healthcare professional are highly advised. These may include tests such as endoscopies, imaging procedures, blood works and lab tests. It's always worth remembering that early detection is paramount to successful cancer treatments.

Mental Wellbeing

While many cancer symptoms and the treatments that follow are physical in nature, it's very important that cancer sufferers pay close attention to their mental wellbeing also, particularly after such a lengthy battle. With emotions flying around during cancer treatments, the mind does its best to keep the body stable and in doing so runs the risk of damaging itself.

This remains true even after treatment. In fact, in many ways the months following cancer treatments can be much tougher on the mind due to it finally letting up a little. Mental health conditions such as depression, stress, anxiety and general emotional distress are all commonplace during the post-treatment period. These can result in further disruption to eating habits, relationships, schedules, and any number of other day-to-day objectives.

The key to remaining mentally strong is to rest and relax but still take part in activities. Take it easy by all means, but don't neglect everyday life. There is a wealth of actions and activities that can help strengthen the mind, including breathing exercises, counseling and talking therapies, and visiting with support groups. It's important that any mental health problems are not neglected as this will simply add to the pressure and eventually damage physical health also. Remember, mental health symptoms should be reported as quick as physical cancer symptoms.

A Lengthy Journey

The actual length of recovery following cancer treatments varies based on the individual circumstances of the sufferer. Many experts suggest that the period of post-treatment recovery takes at least as long as the treatment (from diagnosis) itself. It's also worth remembering that many physical and psychosocial problems do not surface until several years down the line. As well as this, cancer symptoms may begin again signifying that cancer treatments are again necessary.

While cancer and the entire treatment process is shrouded in mystery, one thing is for sure. Cancer recovery is a long and tiring process that has many twists in the tale as well as the odd sting in the tail or two. Taking a slow but methodical and concentrated approach will ultimately serve a cancer survivor well both mentally and physically.

Breast Cancer: No Longer A Killer

Breast cancer remains a serious condition, affecting one in twelve women sometime in their lifetime. But, fortunately, it is no longer typically life threatening or permanently scarring.

Breast cancer, like all cancers, were once very mysterious. While much remains unknown and an area of active research, the disease itself is fairly well understood. The underlying causes are still uncertain in some cases, but the manner in which it spreads and acts is much better known today.

The risks of breast cancer - who gets it, the pros and cons of different treatments, survival rates and more - are also much better quantified.

While many claims are overblown, the effects of diet are becoming clearer. Many questions remain, but low estrogen producing diets and lifestyles are strongly indicated as beneficial. Low fat diets contribute to that as does regular exercise.

Early detection and diagnosis has reached the stage where as few as 50 clumped cancer cells can be identified. Chemical tests for early detection are becoming cheaper and more sophisticated. Ultrasound is becoming more common. Treatments now range from the traditional lumpectomy or mastectomy, chemotherapy and radiation to more advanced hormone treatments.

Even with all the innovation, though, self-examination remains one of the best practices. It is in the individual's control and makes possible ferreting out anything requiring further investigation by more advanced methods. Mammograms remain a low cost, low risk and low discomfort method of detecting tumors.

Recovery is quicker and fewer recurrences are seen, thanks to more precise diagnosis and treatment. Computer aided analysis in the form of digital mammography makes reviewing test results much more accurate than in years past.

Where, tragically, a woman or man has contracted breast cancer and requires surgery, improved reconstructive techniques have lessened the harm. The FDA has recently taken silicon implants off the forbidden list. Implantation and plastic surgery in general have become less onerous. Patients are now often out of the hospital the same day as the surgery.

It's commonplace today for nearly 100% of those who receive early diagnosis and treatment, while the breast cancer is still in Stage 0 or Stage I, to live longer than five years. Many never have any recurrence at all and are not bothered with breast cancer the rest of their lives.

This once almost invariably fatal disease hasn't been reduced to the level of a mere annoyance. It remains a serious condition requiring careful consideration of all options. But thanks to modern medicine, while breast cancer once killed almost all its victims, individuals now typically enjoy a cancer free life after treatment.

Easy Ways To Deal With Skin Cancer Side Effects

Sufferings from side effects are very common when undergoing a treatment for skin cancer. This is more common if you are receiving radiation treatments or chemotherapy. One tends to suffer from several skin conditions such as rashes, redness, acne, peeling and dryness frequently. Some skin cancer patients may also feel that they are more sensitive to sunlight. Other may observe their nails becoming brittle and dark.

However, there is nothing to panic because consistent consultation with your health care team can cure some of these side effects and may also treat them.

Here are some great tips to deal with certain side effects one may face during the treatment of skin cancer:

a) You can easily deal with rashes and itches via powdering your body with corn starch.

b) Take frequent showers and use a moisturizing soap to relieve dry skin problems. You must avoid long hot baths. Hot baths only necessary when you are or an oatmeal treatment.

c) It would not be wise to use any products on your skin. The products you must avoid must include cologne, perfume, after shave lotion and all products containing alcohol. These products can dry out your skin. Also avoid using all types of astringents including witch hazel.

d) Inform your doctor immediately about any pain or burning sensation on your skin while on IV drugs. Pain or burning sensation is an indication that medicine is leaking out the veins.

e) Ask your doctor whether you can take B vitamins to deal with brittle or darkened finger or toe nails. You can also protect your nails via wearing proper gloves or foot wear when working or gardening

f) You need to take certain precaution while going outside once you find yourself hyper sensitive to sunlight. Wear good sunscreen, wear protective clothing. Also use lip balms to deal with this side effects.

g) Keep visiting an oncologist or dermatologist about your progress during the treatment.

h) You should avoid tanning beds and heat lamps at tanning salons. The ultraviolet ray coming out of these heat lamps (UV-A rays) can easily penetrate in to the skin deeper as compared to UV-B rays that come from sunlight.

i) Take supplements for vitamin A or D. Try using dairy products enriched with vitamin A and D.

j) Ask for certain creams and moisturizers that may be effective against the dryness due to skin cancer treatment.

k) Keep your face clean and dry if you are suffering from acne due to skin cancer treatment. Ask your doctor in charge to prescribe you some medicated creams or soaps for the same.

l) Always apply cream and lotion while your skin is still moist to combat dryness.

m) A colloid oatmeal bath or diphenhydramine for generalized purities resulting from the treatment of skin cancer.

n) Buy nail-strengthening products.

o) Avoid going out in the sunlight between 10: 00 a.m. and 4: 00 p.m.

p) Always wear long-sleeve cotton shirts, pants and hats with a wide brim. These hats will help you to get some relief from hair loss via blocking the harmful ultraviolet sun rays.

q) Keep informing your doctor about any inconvenience that you face during the skin cancer treatment.

Skin Care Techniques – ?personal Skin Care? Is A Practice

Everybody knows that ?personal skin care? has a great significance. Different people have various views regarding ?personal skin care?. Some people are of the opinion that visiting beauty parlors every next day will give personal skin care. However, some think that only by applying a lotion or some cream on their skin frequently gives personal skin care. Also, it is mere an episode for some people that occurs either once in a month or a year. Yet others keep themselves engaged in ?personal skin care? every time. However, taking the benefits of personal skin care into consideration you can see that it is neither that costly nor complicated. It is following a procedure or a routine to attend the needs that your skin requires.

Before you start the ?personal skin care? you need to know the type of skin that you have i.e. whether it is sensitive, dry, normal or an oily skin and then choose the skin care product based on the skin-type. Initially, you have to experiment some skin care products. Given below is the routine for a person with normal skin-type.

The first step in the routine of personal skin care involves ?Cleansing?. The main ingredients in a cleanser are wetting agents (surfactants), water and oil. Surfactant and oil draw oil and dirt from the skin and after that water flushes out, hence cleans your skin. But, you have to experiment some cleansers before you decide which one is best for your skin. You should prefer cleansers that are soap-free. Also, use warm water to cleanse your skin (cold and hot water might harm your skin). However, don?t cleanse your skin too hard otherwise it would damage the skin.

The second step in the routine of personal skin care includes exfoliation. The skin undergoes a natural process in which it eradicates the dead skin cells and changes them with new cells. Exfoliate is only a way that facilitates your skin in this procedure. The dead skin cells don?t react to any kind of personal skin care thereby consuming the skin care products, thus, prevents them from undergoing new skin cells. So, it is very essential to eradicate the dead skin cells so as to use the skin care products effectively. Hence, after cleansing follows exfoliation. It is important to know how mush exfoliation is required when you go for any kind of personal skin care. Exfoliate 1-2 times weekly for sensitive/dry skin and 4-5 times weekly for normal/oily skin. In humid and hot weather exfoliate for more time.

The next step in the routine of personal skin care involves moisturizers. This can be considered as one of the very significant processes of personal skin care. Yet an oily skin-type requires moisturizers. Moisturizers not only draw the moisture content from the skin cells, also intake moisture from atmosphere when required. The excess use of moisturizers may blog the skin pores and results in damaging your skin. When you use moisturizer, within one week you will understand the amount of moisturizer that is required by the skin. It is better to apply the moisturizer when the skin is damp.

The last step in the routine of personal skin care involves sunscreen. Many moisturizers and day-time creams are available with dual benefits as they have both the moisturizing property and protection from UV radiation. Such type of moisturizers can be used in any time in any weather (cloudy or sunny).

Again try the different products in this type of skin care, also the quantity you want to use. The best result that you will get from is the best recipe for your personal skin care. In case of any skin disorders, it is advised to visit a dermatologist before applying any kind of products for personal skin care.

Working Towards A Future Without Breast Cancer

Chances are someone close to you such as your friend, mother, wife, sister or even yourself has been touched by breast cancer in one way or another. That?s why it is so important that we never give up fighting for a cure.

Finding a cure is not impossible, but it is definitely a long, hard battle. Raising funds for the technology for early diagnosis, treatments options, and breast cancer research is vital. Education and support to breast cancer patients is also crucial for survival. That?s why the Royal Canadian Mint has produced its second color circulation coin to help support the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation.

This special 25-cent piece coin entitled ?Creating a Future Without Breast Cancer,? displays a colored pink ribbon in its center, with three additional silver ribbons around the border. As the Royal Canadian Mint says, this coin was created as ?A tribute to courage [and] a symbol of Hope.? Thirty-million coins began their circulation in Canada on April 1, 2006.

The coins are being circulated across Canada, and Canadian shoppers could receive one as a pleasant surprise in their change at their local Shoppers Drug Mart. They can also be purchased directly from the Royal Canadian Mint?s website.

However, The Breast Site, an information portal on the topic of breast health and breast cancer decided to offer 1000 coins, one to every individual U.S. reader, who didn?t have access to the coins. On June 8, 2006 The Breast Site launched its Pink Ribbon Coin Promotion, offering the breast cancer coin to its U.S. readers for a limited time as a symbol of hope.

Well, I?m happy to announce that The Breast Site has officially sent out its 1000th pink ribbon coin! We?d like to thank every reader who filled out the online form to receive their very own free breast cancer coin. Only 1000 coins were available, so hopefully you were one of the lucky recipients who submitted your form before the 1000th coin was sent today.
Amie Cunningham, a writer for who also worked on the team that mailed out the Pink Ribbon coins says, ?It was so great to see so many men and women of all ages taking advantage of this special opportunity! It?s too bad that there were only 1000 coins available, because there were many applicants who submitted after the last coin was sent.?

Editors at The Breast Site urge readers to continue to check back for other great promotions that the site plans to introduce in the future. Cunningham notes, ?The very first Breast Site newsletter will be launched in the very near future.?

The Burning, Itching, Craze Of Athlete’s Foot

Trichophyton. Athlete's Foot. Tinea pedis. Well, it really doesn't matter what you call it, but what really matters is that you begin treatment as soon as this ringworm fungus decides to interrupt your life.

The soles of your feet, when bothered with athlete's foot, are assaulted with intense itching, burning and stinging. And don't think that just because you practice superb foot hygiene that you are safe from the foot fungus. Oh, no, athlete's foot affects more than seven out of ten people. Well, that about covers all of us.

Generally, athlete's foot attacks the area in between your toes. It can also get into your toenail bed. And here's the worse part, if you can't control yourself and find yourself scratching your foot and then scratch another part of your body, well, guess what, can transfer the invasion from your feet to those areas.

Here's the good news … well perhaps it is really the bad news. Athlete's foot is not just a condition battled by athlete's. Nope, athlete's foot can and does attack athletes and non-athletes alike. With the right set up, athlete's foot can invade your feet too. No one is exempt.

The athlete's foot fungus loves moist, damp, dark places. Sounds a bit sinister doesn't it? Think about where you might find these areas. Well, community gyms, shared locker rooms, the running shoes you insist on wearing every day are perfect fungal loving places. Yes, all of these are just right for the set up for athlete's foot.

The ringworm fungus can most definitely be spread from one person to another by simple contact with the fungal hosting object. But here's the deal, unless that fungus has the appropriate environment to live, grow and breed in then it will simply lie harmlessly dormant.

If you are unfortunate enough to have an athlete's foot attack, then you can expect to see flaky skin, blistered skin, cracking skin and yes, even peeling skin. Disgusting? Yes! But unfortunately those are the facts.

This little beast of a foot condition can be especially frustrating since it can be tough to completely eliminate. Treatment can be long and it has to be consistently performed.

So if you want to avoid athlete's foot then stay away from the perfect little breeding grounds for this ringworm fungus that can leave you with a base case of itchy feet!

Just get over it! Beat back athlete's foot before it makes you crazy!

Stomach Cancer Treatment is Now Available

There are several types of cancer and this is unarguably true that stomach cancer is a result of malignant cells in stomach's lining. In the last few years, stomach cancer has decreased by fifty percent in the western world, but still it is a major cause of death in the in less developed countries. Though dangerous disease is common to be found across the world, but if we talk about United States, it affects around eight in 100,000 Americans and it can be found in men as well as in women. It is common to be seen in those people who come under lower income.

There may be various different reasons of this disease such as unhealthy diet, increased use of refrigeration, family history, etc. Since stomach is divided into five parts, it can develop in any part and there may be different symptoms and consequences. Most of the researchers claim that this type of cancer gradually grows and most often proceeded by the growth of precancerous cells and spreads to the organs of the body including lungs, liver, bones, and so on in various different ways such as through blood, lymphatic system, passing into intestine or esophagus.

Following are some of the symptoms of stomach cancer:

Let's now discuss treatments of this type of cancer. It may be treated with radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and others. Since radiation therapy is a local cancer treatment in that high energy x-rays are delivered to the tumor as well as healthy tissue surrounding it to damage cancer cells. Delivering a high-dose of energy x-rays modifies the hereditary makeup of cancer cells and therefore it doesn't let them reproduce. Chemotherapy is another treatment option that involves administering potent chemical drugs for killing the cancer cells. Other than these treatment options, surgery is another stomach cancer treatment option that is used in order to remove the tumor and evaluating the stage and rigorousness in the body of the patient.

All the above mentioned therapies are being used to provide treatment to the various different types of cancer, but bear in mind that all patients cannot receive all these therapies in similar way. What therapy will suit to the patient it completely depends on the type and stage of cancer. It is advisable that for an effective treatment, a patient should contact to specialist physician.

Maitake The Dancing Mushroom Fraction for Complimentary Cancer Therapy and Immune System Builder

The Medicinal mushroom maitake has been used for quite a few generations for well being optimizer in Asian countries including Korea and china. The fungi were so precious at times that they were said to be worth their weight in silver. The fortunate particular person to discover them growing wild within the hills would have danced for joy. Hence the phrase "Mai-" which means dancing and "-take", that means mushroom in Japanese.

So Grifola frondosa mushrooms had been mostly available among the wealthiest and most powerful individuals who could afford them. Jump ahead to today and they may be bought fresh in just about every Japanese supermarket. Less than 20 years ago the commercial growth of These mushrooms became doable, because of a company named Yukiguni Maitake. They created the technology to grow these yummy mushrooms, without the usage of pesticides, chemicals, preserving chemicals or other chemical compounds.

Shoon after industrial growth became possible, researchers started researching the medical effects of a variety of extracts and nutrients of Maitake mushroom. Researchers at Kobe Pharmaceutical University first identified the immuno enhancing and anti-cancer effects of a particular Maitake extract. The exceptional extract was patented and scientific studies has been published year after year concerning the amazing health effects of this Maitake extract.

Now, top cancer research facilities in the USA are also showing the immuno enhancing and capability for being utilized as a combination cancer therapy. Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University have published human research trials on mamary cancer patients who had completed therapies. The results show that this patented Maitake extract is statistically confirmed to have immmune enhancing effects on the group of cancer individuals. And no upper dosage toxicity was discovered. So this extract isn't harmful to take doses up to 10 milligram for every kg of body weight. They mentioned probably the most powerful amounts for this Maitake extract.

Now other studies published in 2009 and 2010 suggests the immuno protective effects of this medicinal mushroom extract, on both human tissues and mice, that are taking chemotherapeutic drugs. Especially, bone marrow is safeguarded from the chemical damage of chemotherapeutic medicines.

A significant concern when cancer sufferers consume anti-cancer drug treatments, will be the damage to immune tissue. When the injury is too heavy, the physician will have to cease using the therapeutic medicine due to danger of life threatening infections that could occur once specific immune tissues have been harmed excessively.

So the need for an immuno protectant is big among cancer patients who are taking immuno harmful cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. If their body can get the anti cancer results of the hospital therapy and the immune protecting and boosting effects of the maitake extract, the danger of infections and needing to quit treatment is less.

You could possibly be asking yourself what extract I'm talking about. And the place to get it.

Actualy I'd 1st like to mention that there is certainly only a single maker of this patented Maitake extract. It's Yukiguni Maitake, a Japanese business. They retain the patent and therefore are the only maker. There are other firms available in the market that sell a very "similar looking" merchandise. But it is not made in Japan and isn't the real patent protected formula that has all of this scientific studies and scientific data.

Most importantly, please steer clear of purchasing any mushroom product which are produced in China. Maitake and all mushrooms dissolve and soak up the food that they're cultivated on. If that substance contains heavy metals or damaging chemicals, the Maitake mushrooms can absorb these poisons readily. Several producers use made in China Maitake mushroom because it is countless numbers of percent cheaper compared to the quality controled, safe "made in Japan" Maitake mushroom.

Please learn more before deciding. The benefits of Maitake extract are too exciting.

So to learn far more about Maitake extract and how to find the true patented Maitake extract, head over to Maitake mushrooms

The Symptoms Of Acid Reflux Disease

The symptoms of acid reflux disease are as follows: heartburn, which is characterized by chest pain; inflammation in the mucosa; difficulty in swallowing; cough and hoarseness. These symptoms are felt by the infected person after eating a fatty meal or drinking liquor, when bending, and worse when constantly smoking.

acid reflux disease is primarily caused by the malfunction of the esophageal sphincter. If there is insufficient supply of the stomach acid, the valve in the stomach responsible for churning up foods to the intestine does not open up. Some of the factors that can trigger acid reflux disease are hiatus hernia, zollinger-elison syndrome, hypercalcemia, scleroderma and systemic sclerosis.

According to paradoxical beliefs, drinking alcohol, tea and coffee can lead to gastro esophageal reflux. But recent studies show that although individuals already infected by this disease can be aggravated by alcohol, tea and coffee, these elements do not cause the disease. Compared to smoking which amplifies the risks of getting the disease, alcohol, tea and coffee had the least impact. But this doesn?t mean that GERD infected people are free to take the beverages stated above. Doctors still suggest avoiding drinking of alcohol in order to shun further aggravation.

Smoking is the chief culprit that causes acid reflux disease. Regular smokers for twenty years are 70% susceptible to acid reflux disease compared to non-smokers. And symptoms of those who already developed the GERD are worsened day by day due to smoking.

The highlight of the research is that great amounts of salts are found to be equivalent to regular smoking in terms of the risk of developing GERD. It is not a common knowledge that table salts can cause acid reflux disease but researchers found out in their studies that people who are constantly using extra salt are 70% at risk to have gastro esophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterologists of New York University Medical Center attested this fact.

Gastro esophageal reflux disease can be diagnosed even by the infected person himself through the appearance of the symptoms. In the occurrence of these symptoms, it is advised to undergo the tests conducted by medical experts to clear doubts of having the disease or to carry out possible treatments.

To treat this kind of disorder, there are varieties of ways possible. It can be cured by prescribed drugs such as antacids, by natural way such as change of diet system, elevation of the head when lying down, or to the utmost is surgery. And of course, it will be best to stop or avoid smoking and drinking alcohol especially to people who are vulnerable to acid reflux disease.

Gastro esophageal reflux disease causes a lot of discomfort that it can ruin even your lifestyle. To avoid its bad effects, precautionary measures should be considered. The clich? quote that prevention is better than cure applies always.

Early Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention

These days, many women are delaying pregnancy for their own career-based reasons. While the risk of infertility looms over these women, there is another risk they should be also aware of before postponing pregnancy; the risk of breast cancer. Delaying first pregnancy has been linked with an increased risk of breast cancer while, having kids at an earlier age can help women prevent the occurrence of breast cancer.

Read on to learn how early pregnancy can help you protect yourself against breast cancer and its complications.

Protective Factors Reside Within the Breast

The ultimate cause of breast cancer has not been discovered yet. Several factors such as heredity, presence of a particular gene (called BRCA1 gene) and other environmental factors are known to increase the risk of breast cancer in women. Recent studies have reported that certain protective mechanisms which can prevent the occurrence of breast cancer are present within the breast. These mechanisms were noted to be initiated during the first full term pregnancy (pregnancy that lasts for the complete term and ends with the delivery of the baby).

Early Pregnancy Initiates Cancer Prevention

Although the cancer-preventing mechanism involved resided within the breasts, their activation was tied to the time of pregnancy. Early pregnancies (those before age 20 - 30 years) were noted to activate this mechanism. The activation was brought about by the action of several hormones present within the body.

One of the most important hormones tracked during the study is produced soon after conception (the hormone also helps in the diagnosis of pregnancy). The production of this hormone is important for the pregnancy to continue. Several other hormones and proteins are also secreted during this period. Studies have reported that if the levels of the hormone are high during the first trimester of pregnancy, there is a greater reduction in the risk of breast cancer after the age of 50 years.

It has been noted that breast cancer risk is cut in half in women who are pregnant (more specifically full-term pregnancy) for the first time before the age of 20 years, as compared to women who have their first baby after the age of 30 years.

In animal studies it was observed that a combination of early first-time pregnancy and an important hormone work together to initiate a complex mechanism, bringing about certain molecular level changes within the breast tissues. As a result of this, the reparative ability of the breast tissues is increased along with the activation of genes that help in controlling the growth and death of tissues. These changes also help in preventing the incidence of breast cancer.

Role of Other Pregnancy-Related Factors

Along with a woman's age at first full-term pregnancy, many other pregnancy-related factors were also noted to influence on breast cancer risk. These included the number of children born, and the duration of breast feeding.

Breast cancer risk of was also reduced by half in women who gave birth to more than 5 children when compared to those who had not given birth. Breast feeding for a minimum period of 1 year after childbirth was also noted to decrease the risk to a great extent.

Pregnancy can hence be one of the most beneficial stages of life for many women. With the increasing incidence of breast cancer in developing countries like the U.S., having a child early and following healthy practices such as breast feeding, can definitely help in reducing the burden of cancer and its related complications.